There is a growing demand for high-performance lens assemblies that produce high-quality images in complex optical systems. As the semiconductor industry moves towards smaller structures, the imaging systems used for inspection and verification must have the highest levels of resolution and sensitivity. Similarly, life science and medical optics applications require objectives with extremely high levels of performance, such as high numerical aperture, large field angles, broad spectral bandwidth, and perfect wavefront correction.
These high-end lens systems are highly sensitive to manufacturing errors, particularly lens alignment and airspaces. The challenge is not only to design compatible lens systems but also to manufacture and mount them precisely so that they maintain their high level of performance. In this paper, we will review different lens assembly techniques and discuss how Melles Griot's Exact Placement assembly technology addresses the requirements for the tightest possible tolerances.